What is anemia?
Anemia is a condition in which the number of RBC red blood cells is low. Each red blood cell contains the molecule hemoglobin, which is responsible for transporting oxygen from the lungs to the body’s tissues. Hemoglobin is the functional unit of RBC and it is an element in its structure. It has iron, when a person has anemia, the amount of hemoglobin in the blood is less than normal.
Although red blood cells are produced in the bone marrow, many factors are involved in their production, erythropoietin, is a molecule secreted by The kidneys and it is cause red blood cells to form in the bone marrow.
An adequate amount of RBC in the blood and prevention of anemia requires the cooperation of the kidneys, bone marrow and nutrients in the body. If the kidneys or bone marrow are not functioning properly, or the body Poor nutrition, it may be difficult to maintain normal RBCs and their functions.
How do we get anemia?
Anemia is actually a sign of the disease rather than the disease itself and it is usually classified as chronic or acute. Anemia. Chronic occurs over a long period of time, but acute anemia occurs rapidly. Determining whether anemia lasts for a long time Whether or not there is a new condition helps doctors find the cause. It also helps predict the severity of anemia symptoms. In chronic anemia, the symptoms usually start slowly and gradually. They progress, while in acute anemia the symptoms can be sudden and distressing. The red blood cell density is about 100 days, so the body is constantly trying to replace them. The cause of low RBCs can be Caused by blood loss or reduced production in the bone marrow. Changes in white blood cell and platelet counts also help determine the cause of anemia. The World Health Organization (WHO) estimates that two billion people worldwide have anemia. And P is attributed to iron deficiency due to anemia.
Types of anemia
1. Iron deficiency anemia:
The most important and common cause of anemia is iron deficiency. If iron intake is limited or low due to diet or because of other reasons, this is called iron deficiency anemia. it also occur if you have a stomach ulcer or other sources of slow or chronic bleeding (colon cancer, Uterine cancer, intestinal polyps, hemorrhoids, etc.) can be harmful.
2. Chronic anemia:
Any long-term medical condition can lead to anemia, this type of anemia is the second most common type after iron deficiency, And occurs in patients with acute systemic disease . Therefore, this disease is due to an increase in hepcidin (low levels of this hormone in the blood increase the absorption of iron from food and, consequently, the amount of iron in the blood increases)and this is called ” inflammation anemia” which it prevent the recycling of iron from macrophages and the absorption of iron.
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3. Anemia due to active bleeding:
Blood loss through heavy menstrual bleeding or ulcers can cause anemia. Gastrointestinal ulcers or cancers Like colorectal cancer, can slowly lose blood and also cause anemia.
4. Kidney-related anemia:
The kidneys release a hormone called erythropoietin, which helps the bone marrow to make RBCs. In people with chronic (long-term) kidney disease, the production of this hormone decreases and this leads to reduces the production of RBCs and causes anemia. Although erythropoietin deficiency is the most basic cause of anemia in chronic kidney failure, but it is not the only cause.
5. Pregnancy Anemia:
Increased plasma volume during pregnancy can be cause of RBCs Dilutes and after a while it will be anemia.
6. Malnutrition anemia:
Vitamins and minerals are needed to make RBCs. In addition to iron, vitamin B12, vitamin A, folate, riboflavin and copper for proper production is needed. Deficiency in any of these micronutrients due to insufficient production of RBC may cause anemia. Inadequate diet is an important reason for lowering vitamin levels and consequently anemia.
Alcohol It has numerous adverse effects on blood cell types and their function. Alcohol may be toxic to the bone marrow and slow down the production of RBCs. Those who consume large amounts often have RBC deficiency.
poor nutrition and deficiency of vitamins and minerals due to alcoholism may lead to anemia.
8. Cell anemia Sickle cell disease:
Sickle cell anemia is one of the most common inherited diseases. It is a blood related disorder that affects the hemoglobin molecule and causes the whole blood cell to deform under stress. In this condition hemoglobin problem is related to qualitative or functional duties.
Abnormal hemoglobin molecules may interfere with the integration of the RBC structure into crescents. Different types of sickle cell anemia vary in severity, especially in the African, Middle Eastern, and Middle Eastern races. There is a Mediterranean.
This is another group of causes of hemoglobin related anemia that includes a lack or error in the genes responsible for producing hemoglobin. A hemoglobin molecule has subunits commonly called alpha and beta globin chains. Deficiency of a specific subunit determines the type of alpha or beta thalassemia. Different types of thalassemia They vary in severity from mild (thalassemia minor) to severe (thalassemia major) and are inherited, causing small hemoglobin abnormalities, meaning that there are not enough molecules of the right type of hemoglobin. Thalassemia minor and major are the most common Hereditary monogenic disorders are the most prevalent in the world in areas where malaria has been or still is endemic.
10. Aplastic anemia:
Aplastic anemia is a disease in which the bone marrow is destroyed and blood cell production is reduced. This causes a deficiency of all three types of blood cells, including RBCs, white blood cells, and platelets. Many common medications can sometimes cause this type of anemia as a side effect in some people.
11. Hemolytic anemia:
Hemolytic or hemolysis is a type of anemia which red blood cells are destroyed themselves and die before bone marrow can replace new red blood cells. Hemolytic anemia occur often because of acquired or inherited reasons. Common causes of acquired hemolytic anemia are autoimmunity, microangiopathy , and infection. Disorders of RBC enzymes, membranes and hemoglobin cause inherited hemolytic anemia.
The role of iron in the body
Iron as an essential micronutrient is responsible for carrying oxygen in the blood, hemoglobin in the blood and myoglobin in muscle has iron. Iron is also one of the constituents of various enzymes in the body. The form of iron stored in the human body is ferritin and homosidine .It is present in various parts of the body including the bone marrow, liver and spleen.
The Role of Iron in Cells and Organisms Widely Known Many branches of the body’s essential metabolism, including the full range of cellular processes, energy production, biosynthesis, proliferation, and metabolism, require iron to occur.
"heme" and "non heme" iron:
Iron in food is divided into “heme” and “non heme “. heme iron is from animal origin and “non-iron” is of plant origin. Normally, the absorption coefficient of “heme” iron in the body is higher, but vitamin C in plants has a great effect on the absorption of “non heme” iron, so that it can increase its absorption coefficient in the body even more than “heme” iron. Consumption of both “heme” and “non heme” iron alone can provide the body with the iron it needs. About 70% of the body’s iron is found in the form of “heme” iron in red blood cells. In growing red blood cells, the demand for iron for hemoglobin synthesis is higher.
Iron stores in the body:
The main iron storage protein is ferritin FT. Ferritin is a protein that binds to excess iron in the body and releases it when needed. Measurement of serum ferritin level is one of the criteria for assessing iron deficiency anemia.
The main regulator of iron stability in the body is hepsidine, a peptide hormone made in the liver. Low levels of this hormone in the blood increase the absorption of iron from food and as a result, the amount of iron in the blood increases.
Like other organisms, pathogens need iron to survive and reproduce, and it uses the iron in the body to meet its needs. The immune system tries to prevent it from multiplying by lowering the body’s iron levels.
Iron deficiency in the body may be due to acquired or genetic factors that lead to a variety of anemia diseases. IDA iron deficiency anemia and chronic ACD anemia are the most common types of anemia. Iron deficiency anemia IDA is the most common anemia in women, children, and hospitalized people who frequently need blood sampling, and it is also caused by iron deficiency in the diet.
As a result, iron is an essential element in a wide range of biological processes in the body. Nutrition and treatment strategies can greatly reduce iron deficiency disorders in the body.
Good foods for anemia:
Iron in animal food sources such as red meat, liver, fish. Plant sources such as rice with an absorption coefficient of 1%, corn 3%, sesame 3% and wheat 7% are available. By consuming natural iron sources along with foods containing vitamin C, iron absorption coefficient can be increased, for example, sesame iron absorption increases up to 8%.
Vegetables, legumes, fruits and nuts and nuts for anemia:
Food sources such as: green vegetables especially spinach, potatoes. Legumes such as: lentils, beans, peas, fruits such as: apples, apricots, watermelons and nuts and nuts such as: Almonds, berries, raisins contain iron.
The point of consuming iron is to overuse it and cause poisoning in the body. Just as iron deficiency impairs the body’s function, too much iron can impair a person’s health.
Medication for anemia:
The use of chemical drugs to treat anemia, although they can compensate for iron deficiency anemia, but in many cases cause gastrointestinal side effects. Also, for those who take other drugs at the same time, drug disorders may not have the desired result or interfere with the treatment of other diseases.
Dietary Supplements for Anemia:
nutritional supplements are another source of provision iron for the body Which covered a variety of types and brands, but due to the artificial and complex structure,` their function in the body’s metabolism is not known or sometimes can cause side effects in long term.
NBS Superfood Dietary Supplement, having its natural origin, does not compensate for the iron deficiency caused by chemical agents in the body and is derived from wheat and has one of the highest iron absorption coefficients in natural sources.
Function of NBS Superfood Supplement:
The function of this supplement, due to its special structure, includes the steps of detoxifying the body cells, strengthening and regulating the body systems.
So there is no worries about excess iron in the body and poisoning due to the presence of excess iron in the long run.
Dosage for different ages and various people, including children, adolescents and adults and all other people according to the body structure of each person with symptoms of detoxification and any person with any specific biological structure can use this dietary supplement.
The combination of all the micronutrients needed by the body and important vitamins in the NBS superfood diet supplement, not only does not interfere with the effect of each micronutrient, but also causes the correct and effective function of each micronutrient. for example, the presence of vitamin C in the diet supplement and its accompaniment With iron, it causes more effective absorption of iron in the body.
Due to the ionized structure of this supplement, it has a more effective absorption in the body and in relation to the body ions. In fact, the presence of micronutrients in the form of ionized and broken down in the superfood dietary supplement takes less energy from the body to be absorbed and effective.
The role of iron in the body
Anemia in infants and children:
At the first of infancy period, a small amount of iron is supplied from breast milk and 4 to 6 months after birth, the need for iron increases significantly, and In the second half of the first year, the baby needs 0.9 – 9-7 mg of iron daily. Between the ages of 1 and 6, the amount of iron in the body doubles.
Anemia in adolescent girls:
The need for iron increases sharply during adolescence in girls, especially during menstruation. Menstruation in premenopausal adult girls increases the average daily iron loss to about 2 mg per day.
Anemia in adolescent boys:
In boys, there is a significant increase in the volume of hemoglobin during puberty, at this stage the need for iron increases to an extent even higher than the average level of iron required during menstruation in women.
Anemia in men and women:
An adults stores an average of about 1-3 grams of iron in their body, maintaining a good balance between absorption and reduction of diet. About 1 mg of iron is lost every day due to the loosening of cells from the surface of the skin and mucous membranes, including the lining of the gastrointestinal tract. Dietary iron intake is required to replace lost iron in feces and urine as well as through the skin. These baseline losses show approximately 0.9 mg of iron for an adult male and 0.8 mg of iron for an adult female.
Anemia in pregnant women:
Increased plasma volume during pregnancy dilutes the RBC and is reflected as anemia. Iron deficiency anemia accounts for 75% of all anemeias in pregnancy
Iron in NBS Superfood Supplement:
The amount of iron in every 2.5 grams of Superfood supplement is 0.665 mg.